Stem cells (SC) are cells with self-replication and multi-directional differentiation potential in the human body, and have the potential to regenerate various tissues and organs and the human body. substances (umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord, amniotic membrane, etc.), bone marrow, dental pulp, fat, etc. Under certain conditions, stem cells can be induced to differentiate into more than 220 functional cells that make up the human body, such as nerve cells, liver cells, and cardiomyocytes.
Embryonic stem cell: a highly undifferentiated cell that is developmentally totipotent and can be induced to differentiate into almost all cell types in the body;
Adult stem cells (somatic stem cells): their differentiation potential is far inferior to that of embryonic stem cells, and they can only differentiate into cells of their own tissues, which are the "reserve army" of tissues and organs;
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs): have similar regenerative capacity to embryonic stem cells, and can theoretically differentiate into all organs and tissues of adults. The application of this technology can generate stem cells with the exact same genotype as the transplant recipient, avoiding rejection. risks of;
According to the developmental potential of stem cells, they can be divided into:
Totipotent stem cells: stem cells with unlimited differentiation potential that can differentiate into all tissues and organs, and embryonic stem cells belong to this category;
Pluripotent stem cells: have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell tissues, but have lost the ability to develop into a complete individual, and their developmental potential is limited. Such as bone marrow pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into at least twelve types of blood cells, but cannot differentiate into other cells outside the hematopoietic system;
Unipotent stem cells: can only differentiate into one type or closely related, two types of cells, such as stem cells in the basal layer of epithelial tissue, myoblasts in muscles, and are the lowest developmental stem cells;
Stem cell therapy is to cultivate a new, healthy and younger stem cell by using stem cells to be isolated, cultured, and differentiated in vitro. dead cells, thereby restoring body function. At present, there are more and more successful cases of using stem cells to treat diseases on a global scale.
1. How do stem cells target damaged tissues? - "Homing" effect
In stem cell science, the term "homing" is used to describe the destination for stem cells to find them. During this process, damaged or inflamed tissue sends signals to be repaired, and the signals serve as cues for stem cells, attracting them to the damaged tissue. The process is very fast (in hours, no more than 1-2 days).
2. How do stem cells play a therapeutic role?
When stem cells reach damaged tissue, they will use two different mechanisms to initiate regeneration: direct differentiation to directly replace damaged cells, or paracrine effects to promote tissue regeneration. So what is the paracrine effect? In stem cell science, it can be defined as the process by which stem cells release factors, which are signals to surrounding cells, prompting them to change their behavior, which in turn initiates the regeneration process.
Cell activation: Stem cells have the ability to activate the dormant state of human stem cells, and have a repairing effect on damaged tissues and organs caused by peroxidation and metabolic waste. The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is essential for normal physiological function. Oxidative stress occurs when free radicals exceed the body's ability to regulate them. Thus, free radicals can negatively affect lipids, proteins and DNA and cause a cascade of human diseases. Stem cells are also able to intervene in free radical stress and restore their normal function.
Regeneration and Repair: Replace and repair dead and damaged cells;
Paracrine effect: Stem cells reduce tissue inflammation by secreting cytotrophic factors, anti-apoptotic factors and various proteins, and at the same time activate endogenous stem cells in damaged tissues, so as to achieve the purpose of damage repair;
Immune regulation mechanism: Repair damaged tissue cells by regulating or producing cytokines, inhibit the immune response of damaged cells proliferation, and fundamentally eliminate the pathogenesis of the disease;
Promote the restoration of signal transduction: promote the restoration of intercellular electrical capacity and electrical conduction, such as mesenchymal stem cells secrete connexins to help intercellular connections, promote the opening of ion channels, etc.;
1. Compared with traditional treatment methods, which can only cure the symptoms but not the root cause, stem cells can fundamentally treat diseases by repairing, replacing and rebuilding damaged cells.
2. After repeated toxicity, genetics, local stimulation, fever and immunotoxicity tests, the results show that stem cell therapy is safe, non-toxic and free of side effects.
3. After a course of treatment, the patient's symptoms will be significantly improved, the course of treatment is short, and the effect is quick.
4. A wide range of treatments, including diabetes, nervous system diseases, autoimmune diseases, etc., is a new hope for many "incurable diseases" and "incurable diseases".
5. Stem cells are intervened by intravenous infusion or arterial intervention, no need for surgery, and the whole process is less traumatic and less painful.
6. Compared with the side effects of traditional treatment, which are more harmful to pregnant women, infants or the elderly, stem cell treatment is safer and suitable for patients of all ages.
7. Abundant sources of transplant materials, no need to match, stem cells can be derived from autologous or allogeneic adipose, umbilical cord blood, placenta, dental pulp, bone marrow and other tissues.
8. Stem cell technology is the only method for tissue repair and cell regeneration in the body.
9. After tens of thousands of clinical trials, stem cell technology can also be applied before the exact mechanism of the disease is fully understood.
Updated: Jun 16, 2022